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模拟现代冲突的兵棋:Matrix Wargames

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发表于 2018-6-2 22:25:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
最近我看方圆奇正微信公众号出了几篇文章,谈到了这个兵棋。于是在wargaming网站顺藤摸瓜找到了原书。目前讨论矩阵兵棋的有两本书。
k2017-1.jpg
第一本《Modern Crises Scenarios for Matrix Wargames》:
本书目的是回应读者的需求,他们需要一个对如何开发矩阵游戏的方法理论的更详细解释,同时本书辅以许多实例,介绍了在英国许多本兵棋的活跃的专业性应用。

第二本《Matrix Games for Modern Wargaming》:
本书是一个帮助开发和推演针对现代冲突的矩阵兵棋的手册。书中的所有实例都有真正的军事应用来帮助理解现代冲突。

鄙人渣翻的简介:矩阵兵棋是一个用创新方式推演传统兵棋难以模拟的想定和冲突的工具,发明者是Chris Engle。在推演矩阵兵棋的过程中,推演者的知识,想象力,说服力非常重要。裁判和玩家都会发现叙事能力可以引领推演的成功。

接下来是公众号文章的链接:
美国陆军军事学院用于教学的矩阵兵棋有哪些?
分析性矩阵兵棋在英国国防科学技术实验室的应用
美国陆军军事学院推演“加里宁格勒2017”矩阵兵棋
矩阵兵棋“一带一路”介绍
利用矩阵兵棋推演叙利亚冲突

本人根据以上的各项信息做了几点认识和猜测:
1.所谓Matrix Wargames是一种没有固定规则的“类”自由式兵棋。(何谓自由式兵棋,最早可以追溯到1873年冯.梅克尔的著作《兵棋研究》,书主旨是在演习过程中将导演从繁琐的规则中解放,论述改变兵棋推演方法的必要性。1876年普鲁士陆军上校冯.范尔第对Kriegspiel的修改把严格的规则裁决变成了随意的图上作业。没有严格的规则,裁决靠导演的判定。)但是本兵棋和传统意义上自由式兵棋不同的是它依靠的是对阵方玩家和裁判的知识和语言叙述,简单的说,裁决不仅是导演根据图上态势做出,玩家的语言陈述非常关键。
2.书籍告诉我们的更多是原则和实例,开发一款矩阵兵棋需要一定的工作,当然也可以在wargaming.co上下载一些现成的想定地图和算子。
3.本兵棋有可能可以和国内某些模联类的活动结合。
4.所谓没有固定规则,并不代表没有规则,玩家在本兵棋中需要下达一系列特定指令(cues)去推演兵棋。具体的细节如下。
The Matrix

The main component of a Matrix Game is a set of "cues" which form the "Matrix". In a basic Matrix Game these "cues" are:

AMBUSH
ANGER
BATTLE CRY
FATIGUED
FEAR
FORCE MARCH
HALT
LARGE FORMATION
LOVE
MORALE INCREASES/DECREASES
MOTIVATION
NORMAL MARCH
OPEN BATTLE
RALLY
RECRUIT/DESERT
REST/PREPARE
RETREAT
ROUT
SHAME
SKIRMISH
SMALL FORMATION
SUPPLY LINES
TACTICAL ADVANTAGE
TERRAIN EFFECT
VICTORY/DEFEAT
WEATHER EFFECT
WILD CARD

N.B. Additional "cues" can be added to the basic "matrix" if required, but in most cases this will not be necessary.

During the course of a game-turn the players select up to five "cues" from the "Matrix", and these form the basis of an "argument".

Go to Contents

Constructing an argument

There are some cynics who, having seen this stage of a Matrix Game in progress, have stated that this was the ideal game for wargamers because they love arguing ... and for once the ability to present a good argument actually does confer a positive advantage to a player. In the Matrix Game, however, the "argument" is not about the rules; it is one of the rule mechanisms!

The "argument" should be structured in such a way as to meet the following criteria; namely it should contain an ACTION, a RESULT, and up to three REASONS, and that these elements should normally be drawn from the "Matrix".

Example 1:

ACTION: "I will FORCE MARCH my troops towards the enemy and

RESULT: bring their forces to OPEN BATTLE. I can do this because

REASON 1: my troops are REST(/PREPARE)ED,

REASON 2: I have the TACTICAL ADVANTAGE because they are not expecting me to do this, and

REASON 3: my troops LOVE their country."

Example 2:

REASON 1: "Because the enemy has a LARGE FORMATION near me capital city and

REASON 2: is threatening to cut my SUPPLY LINES,

REASON 3: thus forcing me to admit (VICTORY/)DEFEAT,

ACTION: I intend to use the mountain passes known only to my troops (TERRAIN EFFECT) to allow me to outflank the enemy forces guarding the frontier and

RESULT: make a surprise attack upon the enemy's homeland, thus forcing them to RETREAT."

Example 3:

REASON 1: "Although I have a SMALLer FORMATION of troops than the enemy,

RESULT: I intend to (VICTORY/)DEFEAT them

ACTION: by attacking (OPEN BATTLE) their forces

REASON 2: in the jungle during the monsoon season (WEATHER EFFECT).

REASON3: I can do this because they are not expecting to have to fight at this time of year (TACTICAL ADVANTAGE)."

All three of these examples show how, with a bit of imagination and rational thinking, it is possible to present very persuasive "arguments" as to what should happen in the next game-turn.

Go to Contents

Resolving arguments

Once each player has presented their "argument" for a game-turn to the Umpire, the latter must decide which of the "arguments" will be successful. This can be done in a variety of ways, but the most widely used method is by dice-throw. In this case the Umpire judges whether a particular "argument" is Very Strong, Strong, Average, Weak, Very Weak, or Stupid and then throws a D6. The result is then read from the Argument Success Table shown below.

The only exceptions to this are:

When two or more players present "arguments" that are incompatible (e.g. they both argue that their forces will receive the only available supplies next turn). In this case both sides throw a D6, and the higher scoring "argument" is successful and the other fails. If both throw the same score, they keep throwing D6s until one side prevails.

When two or more players present "arguments" that are the same (e.g. they argue that a particular unit should be sent into a specific area of province). In this case the "arguments" MUST be successful, unless it is incompatible with another "argument", in which case it is resolved by dice throws as shown above.

Argument Success Table:
捕获.PNG

Once it has been decided which of the "arguments" presented by players have been successful and which have not then any resulting combat takes place and all changes in status are recorded by the Umpire.

Play then moves on to the next game-turn.

拓展阅读:http://www.wargamedevelopments.org/matrix.htm
https://paxsims.wordpress.com/2014/09/20/review-matrix-games-for-modern-wargaming/
大家请不要叫我C大,我不是大,也不是C是Coucou

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发表于 2018-6-2 22:26:06 | 显示全部楼层
呃,该说此消彼长吗?
我国开始搞严格式,美国又开始自由式了

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看的太快了,我还在补充材料。  发表于 2018-6-2 22:27
誓扫匈奴不顾身,五千貂锦丧胡尘。
可怜无定河边骨,犹是春闺梦里人!

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-6-3 16:49:51 | 显示全部楼层
wzfcns 发表于 2018-6-2 22:26
呃,该说此消彼长吗?
我国开始搞严格式,美国又开始自由式了

其实不是此消彼长,这是特例,而且最早在上世纪八十年代末这套系统的雏形就出现了
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发表于 2018-6-3 17:58:06 | 显示全部楼层
准确的讲,其实自由式那种从来都没有消失过吧,即使是在英美军队里。虽然现在的兵棋书上都把自由式和严格式对举,但严格式的地位并不是被自由式威胁的,后者只是前者的一个简化和补充形态,内涵是一样的。真可能的威胁应该是一种新内涵的模拟方法(比如以前的运筹分析),这时往往严格式先倒霉。

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发表于 2018-6-4 08:54:54 | 显示全部楼层
很古老的棋啊。
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